The Second Austrian Democratic Republic was a rump state of the Democratic Republic of Austria-Hungary that dissolved in 1968. It existed between May 9 and July 17 when an uprising overthrew the Communist government and established a new government called the Second Austrian Republic. The new government proved to be unstable and fighting between the left and the right threatened to plunge the nation into civil war. A referendum in Austria and Bavaria led to the successful union of the Second Austrian Republic and the Federal Republic of Bavaria into the South German Federation.

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